At the southwestern tip of Eurasia lies a geological dead end known as the Iberian Peninsula. With the majestic Pyrenees Mountains to the north and the Pillars of Hercules off the Strait of Gibraltar to the south, this peninsula includes parts of France and all of Spain and Portugal. It is also home to one of the highest concentrations of hominid sites on the planet. These are mainly Neanderthal sites dating back more than 10,000 years ago.
Another ancient concentration, many dolmens, is almost in perfect relationship with these sites. These hominid sites and mysterious megaliths are sources of both scientific knowledge and mythological culture, providing data and lore, respectively. Perhaps by reconciling these seemingly opposing paradigms, new clues to human origins can be discovered, breaking through the thick fog of cultural biases and taboos that cloud understanding.
Axlor's Location: The Question of the Primitiveness of the Neanderthals
Throughout the cave systems of the peninsula, scientists are discovering early human sites that have yielded groundbreaking data over the past two decades. Axlor is a Neanderthal camp in the community of Dima, Vizcaya, a village in the Basque Autonomous Region. This site dates back more than 40,000 years ago and played an important role in changing the views on the primitiveness of the Neanderthals.
Hominid habitation in this area was so intense and prolonged that ancient remains allowed scientists to construct complex timelines and patterns of use, and what they found changed their understanding of the entire human subspecies. For example, they were able to determine that these Neanderthals had successfully adopted long-term hunting strategies over time, which enabled them to combat the radical climatic and ecological changes they had experienced.
All of this research challenged decades of speculation that Neanderthals were dumb animals with limited cognitive abilities. In fact, these Neanderthals practiced resource management and have done so with great success for thousands of years. In addition, the game they hunted was extremely dangerous and difficult to kill, further indicating complex, coordinated survival strategies.
Cova Forada: Curious Neanderthal Remains and Artifacts
Cova Forada is another notable cave and Neanderthal site located in the Spanish province of Valencia, near the Mediterranean coast. The site has brought three major discoveries and is also exceptional due to its extremely ancient dates dating back to the Middle Paleolithic (over 100,000 years ago). One of the most complete Neanderthal skeletons ever found at this site, with many bones still connected to the spine, which is extremely rare and scientifically valuable.
More recently, another piece of evidence in the form of a very ancient necklace was found in the Cova Forada cave. The necklace is made almost exclusively from eagle's claws, which were not too much of a food source for these Neanderthals. This indicates a certain degree of symbolic meaning, just as today numerous peoples use the eagle as a symbol of sovereignty.
Cova Negra: Learning to Hunt Neanderthals
In the province of Valencia, near the village of Xativa, there is another Neanderthal cave known as the Cova Negra. This place is also incredibly ancient, the settlement dates back to the Middle Paleolithic. This place is unique due to the large number of fast and small wild animals that were processed and eaten here, especially birds.
Neanderthals usually hunted big game, the largest and most dangerous game imaginable. But here, and in several other caves nearby, they chased, killed, butchered and ate eighteen different species of birds, the most common of which were pigeons and crows. Another interesting note about the Cova Negra: of the seven different Neanderthals found in the cave, six were children and one was a teenager.
Bolomorska Cave: Advanced Technologies and Elephant Remains
Bolomor Cave near Tavernes de la Valdigna is another Valencian site where very ancient hominid remains have been discovered with significant consequences. Remains of four different Neanderthals have been found, but the notable aspect of the site is that sites date back 350,000 years ago, as well as differences in tool construction. The conventional upholstery technique (the technique of chipping off the edges of the stone until the core is intact) has been used infrequently, suggesting that it may have marked some degree of technological transition.
Many foci are also currently being explored, some of which are stone-paved and date back 250,000 years ago. Perhaps the most perplexing find found in the Bolomorskaya cave was that throughout the entire existence of this place, young elephants were hunted and eaten. It is difficult to imagine that these elephant carcasses (along with many heavy ungulates) were delivered to the cave by hand.
Keep in mind that it is not easy to get to the Bolomorian cave without having anything with you. It is a very steep slope 100 meters up the side of the cliff. Despite the fact that these Neanderthals were six times stronger than Homo sapiens, it takes an incredible effort to bring a deceased young elephant calf to this cave.
Sidron Cave: Evidence of Neanderthal Cannibalism and Genetics
The remains of the Cidron Cave in the municipality of Pilona in Asturias, northwestern Spain, were unexpectedly discovered in 1994. About 13 Neanderthal remains have been found, along with 53 stone tools and an amazing gallery of petroglyphs. In the vast cave system, there are very few non-hominid bones, and they were all deliberately piled in a small chamber.
Upon closer examination and careful analysis of the bones, a terrible reality emerged. Unmistakable traces of cannibalism were found on the bones. Forensic anthropologists have identified "traces of cuts, scales, shock pits, conchoidal scars, and adhered scales."
Of all the fruits of knowledge plucked from this tree, perhaps the most intriguing are genetic anomalies and revelations. To begin with, the FOXP2 gene was discovered, and it is this genetic marker of genetics that is identified with language in modern people. This is a direct allusion to the fact that Neanderthals possessed speech and, therefore, developed communication, which again refutes previous assumptions about the primitive capabilities of hominids. But, so to speak, the royal gem is the first ever complete sequencing of the Y chromosome of a Neanderthal.
Archeogenetic anomalies of the Sidron Cave
Successful sequencing of the Y chromosome of a Neanderthal from Sidron Cave has raised more questions than answers. Based on an uncertain interpretation of this single specimen, scientists are said to indicate that it indicates that the Neanderthals descended from a common human ancestor 590,000 years ago.But here it is necessary to raise the red flag of caution in interpretation due to several additional anomalies.
It is important to note that the Y chromosome is passed down exclusively from the father. Until now, no hominid or hominin has passed this chromosome. This Y chromosome has never been identified in modern humans and is encoded by various MiHAs (minor histocompatibility antigens) that are at odds with those in modern humans.
What exactly all this means is far beyond the scope of this article, but suffice it to say that it is rather strange and does not agree with existing ideas about Neanderthals, their alleged African origin or relationship with Homo sapiens.
Dolmen Kanhwa in Kanhwa-gun, South Korea.
Determination of dolmens
What is a dolmen? A dolmen (also known as a cromlech) is an ancient megalithic structure, usually made up of two or more huge vertical stones that support one very huge, often flat stone. In some cases, additional smaller stones or earth mounds cover the entire structure, which in this case is classified as tumulus. According to the generally accepted definition, most of them date from the Early Neolithic period: 3000 - 4000 BC, and that their original function was burial.
However, the reality is that these structures are a great archaeological mystery. There are very few, if any, peer-reviewed scientific reports on dolmen excavations that have provided conclusive evidence of who, how, when, and for what purpose built these structures. The mystery is aggravated by the fact that they exist all over the planet, and their greatest concentration is observed in Korea, where there is an incredible number of more than 30,000 structures. Western Europe (France, Spain and Great Britain) and then the Levant are distant rivals of the Korean dolmen concentration, which in itself may provide a clue.
Studies of the concentration of hominid dolmens
The silver medal for the concentration of dolmens goes to France, or rather southwestern France, which leads to the Iberian Peninsula. This region of France is the gold medalist in yet another competition, and it is the highest concentration of Neanderthal sites on the planet.
This relationship continues in the Iberian Peninsula, where the highest concentration of Neanderthal sites is in the Pyrenees. It is a stone's throw from the dense concentration of dolmens in the south of France and the southwest coast of Portugal, which is also in close proximity to the dense concentration of the previously mentioned Iberian dolmens.
Perhaps the Neanderthals, who were strong enough to drag the young elephants onto the rock, had the strength to build these gigantic structures? Resin, feathers, boiling oil and an angry crowd of anthropological conformists are used, but despite their fury, the simple fact remains: the stone cannot be carbon-dated (due to the apparent temporal distance between Neanderthals and dolmens), and more There is no direct, published archaeological evidence identifying the builders of these structures.
In addition, the concept of Neanderthals is rapidly changing towards an increase in their capabilities and prescription of existence, which contrasts sharply with all the dogmas about primitive hominids that are still preserved in the minds of the public. But again, that could be the whole point. In other words, it may turn out that excavations have been carried out, reports have been drawn up, remains and artifacts that the public does not know about have been exhumed. Of course, there are many unusual reports from the USA and Russia (late 19th and early 20th century) related to burial mounds and unique physical characteristics of skeletons (which are now impossible to find).
Dolmen Menga in Antequera, Spain.
Dolmens of Antequera
The Iberian Peninsula is lined with hundreds of dolmens, but several stand out for their astronomical / geographic orientation, incredible size and potential Paleolithic connection. Dolmen Menga, located in southern Spain near Antequera, is one of the most significant masterpieces of megalithic construction, based on earthen pillar and lintel construction.
This dolmen is notable for its enormous dimensions, which exceed the dimensions possible for corridor tombs, thanks to the use of an unprecedented solution of intermediate pillars. In addition, the Tholos of El Romeral (different dolmens on the same site) complements these two dolmens with its corridor and a false dome of dry masonry.
Dolmen Menga and Tolos El Romeral have anomalous orientation. Archaeoastronomer Michael Hoskin, who analyzed the site, noted that the Menga dolmen is oriented towards a nearby mountain peak known as Peña de los Enamorados (interestingly, this mountain is also known as Montaña del Indio, as it resembles the head of a Native American). This strange, lonely mountain rises steeply above the plain and contains the modern Matacabras rock shelter, which is home to cave paintings.
A similar orientation exists for the Tolos dolmen of El Romeral, which is oriented towards the El Torcal Mountains, where the Bull's Cave is also located (another site of rock carvings and early man) and is also oriented towards the midday sun on the winter solstice. El Torcal features a vast, otherworldly karst landscape at its summit.
In addition, the Tolos El Romeral dolmen is located along the axis from the Menga dolmen to Peña de los Enamorados. Thus, the dolmens of Antequera represent an ingenious, stylized and artificial landscape, intertwined and symbiotic with the surrounding natural formations and stars.
The skull of a Gibraltar 2 Neanderthal was discovered in the Devil's Tower Mousterian rock shelter.
At the southernmost tip of the peninsula, at the edge of the Strait of Gibraltar, are the ruins of the Devil's Tower. This name refers to an ancient stone watchtower that was destroyed in 1940 on purpose, allegedly because the tower interfered with the line of fire of the Second World War guns. This was an order from General Sir Noel Mason-Macfarlane, since Gibraltar was then and is now technically an overseas territory of Great Britain.
Digressing for a moment, it should be noted that similar ancient watchtowers with identical dry masonry construction exist in other anomalous megalithic sites around the world, such as Kulap in Peru, Malta and Sardinia in the Mediterranean, as well as in the Four Corners region to the south. west of the United States. In addition, during the war, the British military deliberately destroyed archaeological sites in Malta, and the Maltese Heritage claims that it was at this point that they somehow "lost" tens of thousands of mysterious human remains from underground chambers below the island.
Returning to the Pyrenean site, we note that in the immediate vicinity of this ancient watchtower there is a Paleolithic rock shelter, inside which in 1926 the archaeologist Dorothy Garrod discovered a Neanderthal skull. It was the second similar Neanderthal skull to be found in Gibraltar, located next to a cache of stone tools and is now known as "Gibraltar 2" or "Devil's Tower Child".
The British authorities categorically state that the tower and the Paleolithic site are not connected, which is convenient for their version, since they deliberately destroyed the tower. Keep in mind that it could not be an obstacle to the mobile gun battery.
The myth "about Entilak
Entilak (plural form of the name Entil), according to the Basque mythology of the Pyrenees region, was an extinct race of hairy giants who were responsible for the construction of dolmens. According to legend, the entilaki coexisted with the Basque people and even taught them metallurgy and agriculture.
While the Basques Homo sapiens lived in river valleys and along the coast, the (archaic) entilak lived high in the mountains in caves. While they are said to have coexisted to some extent peacefully, they were also seen as hostile, rebellious, and dangerous.
It was believed that they had tremendous physical strength, could throw boulders from one mountain to another, and organized rock throwing competitions, which are still held by the modern Basques. Tradition concludes that the entilak, not wanting to develop and coexist anymore, retreated through the dolmens into the underworld.
It may very well be that the so-called Gentilak myth, a high concentration of dolmens and a dense accumulation of Neanderthal sites are all remnants and memories of the same Paleolithic culture. Why is there so little archaeological data on these structures that exist across the planet? And why were the ancient people forced to build these structures in the first place?