Mesolithic sites explored in Murom district

Mesolithic sites explored in Murom district
Mesolithic sites explored in Murom district
Anonim

Traces of a settlement dating back 10 thousand years, more than 20,000 finds: stone tools, numerous remains of animal and fish bones were discovered by an expedition of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences during excavations of Mesolithic sites near the Veletma River (a tributary of the Oka) - these monuments belong to the early stage of the Butovo archaeological culture. The research was carried out during archaeological work preceding the construction of the M12 - Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod - Kazan highway.

“The monuments located on the highway are witnesses of ancient history, part of the cultural heritage of our country. The vicinity of the Maloye Okulovo, Volosovo, Navashino trees near Murom is a significant territory for Russian archaeologists: this is one of the points where our archeology began. It was in these places that Count Alexei Sergeevich Uvarov conducted excavations in the 19th century, whose research led to the discovery of archaeological sites and cultures from the Paleolithic to the Bronze Age. Not far from these places, near the village of Karacharovo, a Paleolithic site was discovered, and near Vladimir - the Sungir Upper Paleolithic site, which became world famous for the found burials. Here the Neolithic settlement of Volosovo was explored, which gave the name of the Volosov culture of the IV-III millennium BC and the monument of the Bronze Age near the village of Pozdnyakovo, from which the Pozdnyakovsk culture, which was widespread in the III millennium BC in the Volga-Oka interfluve, got its name,”she noted. Deputy Director of the Institute of Archeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences Asya Engovatova.

Beginning of excavations near the Veletma River

In the 70-80s of the last century, on a long ridge of sand dunes running along the right bank of the Velet'ma River and its numerous old lakes, archaeologists discovered a number of sites from the Mesolithic, the time of hunters and gatherers, to the Early Bronze Age, when people had already learned how to smelt metal and mastered cattle breeding and agriculture. But systematic excavations in large areas have never been carried out here, and archaeologists were able to fully explore these monuments only when this site fell into the construction zone of a high-speed highway. A thorough study of archaeological heritage sites using a complex of natural scientific methods became possible thanks to cooperation with the Avtodor Group of Companies and the Autobahn road-building company.

Fixation of archaeological objects using a quadrocopter at the Malookulovskaya -3 site.

Near the village of Maloye Okulovo, archaeologists investigated five sites discovered in different years of the last century: sites Maloye Okulovo - 10, Maloye Okulovo -11, Maloye Okulovo -19, Maloye Okulovo - 20 and Malookulovskaya - 3. The total area of ​​the investigated sites was more than 10,000 square meters. meters.

Cleaning the collapse of the vessel. Parking lot Maloye Okulovo –11.

Excavations on a large area have shown that the sites near Velet'ma were inhabited in the early Mesolithic era, about 10 thousand years ago. At this time, the glacier covering most of Eurasia had already retreated. The climate was colder than today, but much warmer than in the previous era, in the Pleistocene. The megafauna has already died out. Here, on the Lower Oka, taiga grew with a predominance of conifers, and the main game animals were elk and beaver.

Fixation of finds. Parking Malookulovskaya - 3

Monuments Maloye Okulovo -11, Malookulovskaya-3 and Maloye Okulovo -19, according to preliminary conclusions of experts, have preserved traces of settlements of different times.In the Stone Age, there were probably seasonal sites here: archaeologists discovered the material remains of the daily activities of the community of ancient hunters and fishermen: numerous accumulations of flint products and a large number of bone remains of animals and fish.

“This monument is unique in that we found on it a rare preservation of organic matter for dune sites in the Mesolithic, a huge amount of animal and fish bones. This is a full-fledged material for dating, since using radiocarbon analysis it is possible to determine the age of the settlement of this place with high accuracy. Using the remains of bones, paleozoologists will be able to accurately reconstruct the species composition of animals and fish that people hunted in antiquity,”said Daria Eskova, deputy head of the Navashinsky unit at the Institute of Archeology, Russian Academy of Sciences.

Work moment. Maloe Okulovo - 19.

Also, objects of later eras were found on the monuments: the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Ages. The Bronze Age is represented by the short-term settlements of the ancient cattle-breeders of the Fatyanovo culture who came from the west, and the Pozdnyakovsk culture associated with the steppes of southern Russia: this was a time of significant migrations, and their traces were found on excavated sites near Veletma. In the late Middle Ages, the territory of the monument was occasionally visited, probably for commercial purposes, and in the 18th – 19th centuries there were tar distilleries here.

Hearth traces. Parking Malookulovskaya - 3

At the Malookulovskaya-3 monument, archaeologists discovered traces similar to the remains of a large dwelling. The bulk of the finds lay in the form of an extensive round cluster, at the southern edge of which there were traces of a hearth. Under a cluster of stone artifacts and a large stain of animal and fish bones, two artificial pits were found. The first, measuring 7X6 meters, had a rectangular shape, and the second was round - about 5 meters in diameter. Many stone finds have been found inside these objects. Scientists assume that these pits are traces of the dwelling complex of an ancient settlement.

Stone tools: knives, drill, arrowhead, chisel, scraper, adze blade. Parking lot Maloye Okulovo –11.

Stone tools: knives, drill, arrowhead, chisel, scraper, adze blade. Parking lot Maloye Okulovo –11.

“This is a completely unique study for the monuments of the Stone Age, a rare case when a monument is almost completely uncovered - both its central part and the periphery. Thanks to excavations on a wide area, we can get a complete picture of the structure of the Mesolithic settlement and reconstruct in detail the way of life and human activity,”said Daria Eskova.

Stone tools: piercing and butt of an ax.

Fragment of a vessel from the Bronze Age. Parking lot Maloye Okulovo –11.

At all sites, archaeologists have discovered a large number of items from the split stone. The finds include arrowheads, scrapers, punctures, and fragments of an ax. At one of the sites of the Maloye Okulovo-19 site, a large accumulation of waste from stone production was found: this means that here in ancient times the master worked flint, creating stone tools.

The collapse of an earthen vessel of the Volosov culture. Parking Malookulovskaya - 3

At all sites, archaeologists have discovered a large number of items from the split stone. The finds include arrowheads, scrapers, punctures, and fragments of an ax. At one of the sites of the Maloye Okulovo-19 site, a large accumulation of waste from stone production was found: this means that here in ancient times the master worked flint, creating stone tools.

“The finds will help us, on the one hand, to reconstruct the way of life of ancient people in these places, and on the other hand, to recreate the technology of stone processing. The finds near Maly Okulov fit into the characteristics of the Butovo archaeological culture, which was widespread at that time in the Volga-Oka interfluve.Having received an accurate description of the finds and an understanding of the technology, we will be able to compare the features of this Mesolithic culture with objects from earlier and later periods of human history and reconstruct technological progress, "said Konstantin Gavrilov, head of the Navashinsky detachment of the IA RAS.

Popular by topic