The universe may have a fifth dimension

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The universe may have a fifth dimension
The universe may have a fifth dimension

Back in the 1920s, in an attempt to combine the forces of gravity and electromagnetism, Theodor Kaluza and Oscar Klein suggested the existence of an additional dimension beyond the usual three spatial dimensions and time - which in physics are combined into 4-dimensional space-time. If it exists, then such a new dimension should be incredibly tiny and imperceptible to the human eye. In the late 1990s, this idea experienced a remarkable renaissance when scientists realized that the existence of the fifth dimension could provide answers to some of the fundamental questions in particle physics. In particular, Yuval Grossman of Stanford University and Matthias Neubert, a professor at Cornell University in those years, showed in their research that the introduction of the standard model of particle physics in 5-dimensional space-time can explain the intriguing patterns observed in the masses of elementary particles.

What is dark matter?

It is believed that dark matter is a mysterious form of matter that is inaccessible to direct observation, since it does not participate in electromagnetic interaction. Dark matter also makes up most of the mass in the universe. In the early 1930s, radio astronomer Jan Oort reinforced the hypothesis of the existence of dark matter by discovering that for the local group of galaxies to move, more matter must exist than we observe. Since then, dark matter has helped researchers explain how gravity works, because many objects would simply dissolve or fall apart without some kind of "x-factor" - dark matter. Since this mysterious substance does not destroy the particles that we see and “feel”, it must have other special properties.

However, there are many problems in physics, and in addition to dark matter, there is a whole range of questions to which there is no answer within the framework of the standard model. “One of the most significant examples is the so-called hierarchy problem, the question of why the Higgs boson is so much lighter than the characteristic gravity scale. The Standard Model cannot accommodate some of the other observed phenomena. One of the most striking examples is the existence of dark matter, "write the authors of the study, published in The European Physical Journal C.

Mysterious dark matter is invisible to observation.

Physicists from the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, have concluded that dark matter may have appeared as a result of the activity of fermions - particles with half-integer spin. The research aims to explain the presence of dark matter using the WED (models for dark matter) model. In the course of the work, the masses of fermions were studied, which, according to scientists, can travel to the fifth dimension through portals, creating dark matter and "fermionic dark matter" in the fifth dimension.

As the study authors told VICE, their original goal was "to explain the possible origin of fermion masses in theories with a skewed extra dimension."

The new particle, the existence of which has yet to be proven, is a kind of fermion or subatomic particle. Physicists believe these particles can travel through the fifth dimension, linking dark matter to all observable matter in the universe. The authors of the study argue that this new particle will be able to interact with the Higgs boson and will be very similar to it. But its mass will be "heavier", so that even with the help of a collider or particle accelerator, it cannot be detected.

How to find a particle of the fifth dimension?

Ordinary matter is known to be composed of fermions. So if the fifth dimension is real, then fermions most likely fall into it. And if these "heavy" particles exist, then it necessarily connects visible matter with the components of dark matter. Studying the 5D equations for the masses of fermionic particles, physicists came to the conclusion that “if this heavy particle exists, then it will necessarily associate the visible matter that we know and which we have studied in detail with the components of dark matter, if we assume that dark matter is made up of fundamental fermions that are in an extra dimension."

The authors described the particle as "a possible new messenger to the dark sector."

Interestingly, with the help of an innovative theory, the abundance of dark matter in space in astrophysical experiments can be explained. “After years of searching for possible confirmation of our theoretical predictions, we are now confident that the mechanism we have discovered will make dark matter available for future experiments, because the properties of the new interaction between ordinary matter and dark matter - which is mediated by our proposed particle - can be exactly calculated within the framework of our theory,”writes Matthias Neubert, head of the research group.

Moreover, the authors of the scientific work believe that the new particle they proposed may play an important role in the cosmological history of the Universe and may even be responsible for the creation of gravitational waves.

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