Every year on September 11, the United States remembers the victims of several terrorist attacks in 2001. On that day, three planes crashed into the World Trade Center buildings in New York and the Pentagon building. In addition, another passenger plane crashed in an open field. As a result, 2996 people died. This terrorist attack is considered the deadliest in US history.
On September 11, 2001, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 crashed into the north and south towers of the World Trade Center in New York. A little over an hour and forty minutes later, both towers collapsed. Around the same time, American Airlines Flight 77 crashed into the Pentagon in Washington, DC, collapsing much of the building's western wall. In addition, in Pennsylvania, United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into an open field near Shanksville after passengers on board attempted to take over from the invaders. But many people did not believe that everything was like this, and therefore came up with their own alternative versions.
We are talking about the most popular conspiracy theories of what happened on September 11, 2001 in the United States. Some of them have long been disproved, but skeptics continue to believe in their alternative theories.
There were no planes, the towers were blown up by explosives
Just hours after the attack on the Twin Towers, the most famous of all theories appeared on the Internet. Its author compared the collapse of the north and south towers to an act of controlled demolition - the main argument was that the towers were almost perfectly "folded" vertically. After the dust settled, adherents of this theory began to collect additional evidence in the form of testimony from witnesses who claimed to have heard the explosions before the towers collapsed.
Later, in an official report, they wrote that the towers fell due to severe structural damage and flaring fires. However, this did not convince skeptics - in their opinion, the fire did not burn for long (56 minutes in the south tower, and 102 in the north), so it could not cause such destruction. They also noted that they saw damage in the lobbies of both buildings - this raised new questions, they say, how did it happen if the planes crashed into buildings much higher - at levels 98-94 and 84-78 floors. But there are answers to these questions.
Specialists from the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), who investigated the collapse of the towers, found that the aircraft severely damaged the engineering shaft systems in both buildings. Because of this, burning jet fuel spilled into the elevator shafts. As a result, many elevator cables could not stand, the braking systems did not work, and the elevators fell down at high speed, destroying the elevator doors in the lobby. When struck, jets of burning fuel poured into the room, hit people and inflicted the same damage that skeptics talk about.
In addition, adherents of this conspiracy theory point to mysterious puffs of smoke that were noticed on every floor of buildings during the collapse. In their opinion, this indicates the blowing up of the towers with the help of explosives. However, experts explain that there was a huge amount of air on the floors of the towers, so with each new floor collapse, the air was instantly compressed under the weight of the structures and had to go somewhere. Accordingly, the illusion of smoke from the explosion was created by a mixture of air and concrete dust.
Remains of destroyed buildings WTC-1 - WTC-7
Jet fuel burning couldn't melt steel
Yes, that argument sounds pretty compelling, since the melting point of steel is 1510 ° C and the temperature at which jet fuel burns is between 426.6 ° C to 815.5 ° C. That is, in theory, due to the burning of fuel, the towers could not collapse. However, experts ask you not to rush to conclusions. In addition to fuel, the buildings burned furniture, as well as curtains, blinds, appliances and a huge amount of paper. NIST estimates that some fires have reached temperatures as high as 1,000 ° C, enough to damage steel. Already after 593, 3 ° C, the metal loses about 50% of its strength, and steel heated to 1000 ° C will lose about 90% of its strength, which then led to deformation of the supporting structures.
Not a plane crashed into the Pentagon building, but a rocket
Early videos and photographs from the scene did not show convincing evidence that it was the plane that crashed into the Pentagon - corny, they did not show the debris. Therefore, skeptics were convinced that, in fact, a rocket or an unmanned drone hit the building. They also argue that the damage to the building was too minor to be caused by the aircraft.
The commercial airliner Boeing 757 is 38.1 meters wide and 47.2 meters long. However, when it entered the Pentagon, it left an entrance hole with a diameter of only 4.8 meters, and an exit hole with a diameter of 3.6 meters. "How is this possible?" - skeptics ask. In their opinion, such damage could have been caused by a guided missile, but not by an aircraft.
The destroyed west wing of the Pentagon
According to an official report from the American Society of Civil Engineers, the hole punched was actually about 22.8 meters in diameter, not 4.8 as it was erroneously reported. But the fact that Flight 77 did not leave a 38-meter hole in the shape of the aircraft is explained quite simply - one of the wings of the airliner collapsed when it touched the ground, and the other wing generally fell off during the impact, since its structure was more fragile than the walls of the Pentagon. But the exit hole, most likely, punched through the more durable landing gear of the aircraft.
But where is the wreckage, skeptics will again ask, because they are not visible in official photographs. The answer to this question is also quite simple - they ended up inside the building, not outside.
United Airlines Flight 93 was actually shot down
According to official figures, the passengers of Flight 93 tried to take control of the plane from the terrorists. But the subsequent battle for the steering wheel eventually led to a shipwreck on an open field in Pennsylvania. As with the attack on the Pentagon, theorists argue that few aircraft wreckage was actually found in the field, and the crash site itself was too small for an airliner of this size. Their alternative theory is that the liner was actually shot down by the military, and it began to fall apart in the air.
This version is defended by the fact that a small white plane was seen over the crash site of Flight 93 - it was immediately mistaken for a US Air Force fighter. In reality, this plane was generally a private vessel of the American clothing and footwear company VF Corp. A small Dassault Falcon 20 was already landing at Johnstown Cumbria airport when the Cleveland Center of the US Federal Aviation Administration asked him to investigate the area shortly after the crash of Flight 93. The plane complied with the request, descending to an altitude of 457 meters, and then returned to the airport.
Place of crash of flight 093
But there is another fact that adherents of alternative theories cling to. After the crash of Flight 93 in Pennsylvania, the wreckage of the plane and the bodies of passengers were found in Indian Lake, 9.6 kilometers from the crash site. Does this mean that the plane still began to collapse in the air after being hit by a rocket? There is no evidence of the veracity of this information. Indeed, small pieces of metal and paper were found in the lake, but there were no bodies.According to the official version, the lake is not 9 kilometers away, but only 2.4 kilometers from the crash site, so light debris could be brought to the water by a strong wind, which caught them in the air after the plane hit the ground.
Evidence that the plane was indeed in was described by researchers from the 9/11 Truth Movement in the essay "Pentagon Attacks: What the Evidence Shows" and others.
The US government knew about the planned attacks, but did nothing
Another theory widespread among skeptics is that the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) deliberately ordered its fighters to allow the hijacked aircraft to reach their targets. Why did they need it? Conspiracy theorists believe the government wanted to use these attacks to justify invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan to protect oil interests.
Insider traders knew about the attacks
In the days leading up to the attacks, an "extraordinary" number of put options were placed on the shares of two airlines, American and United, whose planes had just hijacked on September 11th. Thus, some theorists believe that traders were warned in advance of the attacks and profited from the tragedy.