Many people know about the ancient civilizations of the Egyptians, Aztecs and Incas. However, there were many other civilizations that were not so famous, although they left traces of their existence. Here are just a few of them.
1. Mehrgarh (7,000 BC)
In 1 974, excavations began in Mehrgarh (Pakistan), however, due to the lack of government interest, as well as due to the destruction of the soil and the systematic plunder of this place, Mehrgarh remained a relatively hidden civilization. In addition, the research work was complicated by the stretching tribal feud and the weak protection of the excavators.
Mehrgarh is considered the most ancient civilization. The surviving artifacts speak of a developed society with established trade relations with different regions. Presumably, Mehrgarh took place around 7000 BC.
The population of Mehrgarh was roughly 25,000, and evidence of life is still to be found there. Many of the remains are buried deep in the earth. The remains include a number of earthen brick structures that have survived and a cemetery.
2. The Vinca civilization (5,000-3,500 BC)
The Vinca civilization (its other name is the civilization of the Danube Valley) is distinguished by the presence of one of the first written systems in the world, including about 7 hundred signs. Most of them have been found in ceramics. The Vinca civilization is also considered one of the most complex known Neolithic cultures with its developed farming system.
The Danube banks have preserved some evidence of the existence of this civilization, which supposedly existed much earlier than the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt.
In 1908, the earliest archaeological evidence of this civilization was discovered on a hill near Belgrade. Presumably, the villages were active for more than 1,000 years, after which they were abandoned. Each village included several thousand people.
The settlers' houses were built of smeared clay. They were engaged in domestic animal husbandry and the cultivation of grain crops. They even had a semblance of a grain plow. In addition, evidence of copper utensils was found. And in Europe, by the way, copper utensils began to be used only after almost 1,000 years.
It is unclear why the Vinca civilization ended its existence. What is clear is that the knowledge and innovations of the people of this civilization have probably sunk into oblivion along with the disappeared civilization.
3. Konar-Sandal (4,500-3,000 BC)
Konar Sandal is located in Giroft (a city in the south of Iran). In 2002, the ziggurat (terraced temple complex) was discovered, which is one of the largest and oldest of its kind in the entire world. To date, 2 burial mounds have been investigated in Konar-Sandal. Among the discoveries is a large 2-storey building with very powerful walls. So, these walls probably served as a type of fortification.
The discovered ziggurat shows a civilization that is based on ritual and faith. Supposedly, the ziggurat dates back to around 2200 BC and may have been built by Aratta (a Bronze Age kingdom described in Sumerian texts, but its location has not been found). The site was described by the excavation leader as "an independent Bronze Age civilization with its own architecture and language."
The area was plundered and excavated without proper permits. History is silent on how many treasures were lost. However, civilization is said to provide evidence for the oldest written language in the world.
4. Civilization of Norte Chico (3,500-1,800 BC)
Norte Chico's civilization is one of the most mysterious. To this day, little is known about this pre-Columbian society in Peru, which is arguably the oldest known civilization in America.
Evidence of huge structures, including pyramids, and traces of complex irrigation systems have been found, but says little about the daily way of life of people. To date, 6 pyramids have been opened. These pyramids were not so complex compared to the later Inca architecture, but they were still quite complex structures.
The villages of Norte Chico were located in the northern part of today's Lima. A distinctive feature of Norte Chico is the fact that she belonged to those rare civilizations that did not know how to make ceramics, since no such artifacts were found in the places of their settlements. They allegedly used pumpkins instead, which were of limited use in cooking.
Until now, a limited number of examples of art and jewelry have been found in their artifacts, however, apparently, there was some kind of belief in deities, but it is not known in what form their belief existed.
The settlement was supposedly abandoned in 1800 BC, but it is not entirely clear why. There is no evidence that they took part in any hostilities or conflicts, as well as there is no evidence that they suffered any natural disaster. Their villages were located near 3 main rivers, therefore, it may be that a prolonged drought forced people to migrate to a new territory, although this has not been proven.