An international research group has conducted research on the proteins of various living organisms, from bacteria to humans. The analysis showed that there is much more in common between them than previously thought.
Based on their analysis, scientists have created the largest protein mapping. They found that there are a number of common characteristics between these dissimilar organisms. In all of these life forms, the researchers say, most of the proteins are focused on metabolizing and maintaining the balance of proteins. In total, scientists analyzed 49 species of bacteria, 32 species of eukaryotes and 19 species of archaea. Prior to this research, the scientific world was mainly interested in DNA, namely, in comparing the genetic material of different species.
According to one of the leaders of the research work Alberto Santos Delga, all these organisms are connected by the fact that a high percentage of their proteomes (the collection of proteins in the body) are focused on maintaining a balance called homeostasis. In addition, it is common that most proteins help generate energy.
In the study, scientists used the method of mass spectrometry, thanks to which it became possible to study more than 100 types of organisms. This large-scale mapping of proteins made it possible to reveal the existence of a large number of new proteins. At the same time, as scientists say, the functions of about 38% of proteins in organisms are still unknown.